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However, the role of women was limited at the national level. In , for example, the government selected only one woman as a full member of the Central Committee of the Workers' Party of Ethiopia.

Of the 2, delegates who attended the party's inaugural congress in , only 6 percent were women.

The enrollment rate among girls in urban areas far exceeded that of girls in rural areas. As of —, there was a steady increase in general enrollment and a decrease in gender disparity in access to education.

The average annual growth rate of enrollment in all levels education was After the formation of the Federal Republic in , the Ministry of Women's Affairs was also established.

As of October , Muferiat Kamil serves as the Minister. The total fertility rate as of is 5. Between and , contraceptive prevalence increased from 8.

An UN analysis of several international studies suggests that domestic violence against women is most prevalent in Ethiopia.

This is interpreted as rendering marital rape a legally impossible concept. This was the highest prevalence of all countries surveyed.

As of , Encouraged and performed by women in the community, circumcision is primarily intended to deter promiscuity and to offer protection from assault.

The gang rape and death of Hanna Lalango , as well as several other contemporaneous high-profile sexual assaults, prompted outrage from women in Ethiopia and internationally.

Gender equality has been a problem in Ethiopia for decades but has had an improvement over the past three years since when Mulatu Teshome became president.

Other international organizations working with Ethiopia include All African Women For Peace AAWP and many others part of the UN keeping their focus on advancing the participation of women in peacemaking and strive to stop early marriages and gender-based violence.

In addition to the international help and participation, the Ethiopian government has also created some organizations such as the Ethiopian Women Association EWA which mainly focuses on stopping some dangerous cultural practises done against women and girls like FGM which involves removing some parts of their private parts and promoting their economic, social and legal rights.

Local organizations such the Women Fight in Harar , a small city in Ethiopia have been trying to fight any parents who keep their from school and putting shame to men who attack, rape or try to rape girls and women.

Furthermore, Ethiopian girls and women's struggles and problems are mostly associated with social acceptance, access to education and child or forced marriages.

To many, it seems the tragedy begins immediately when they are born because when a mother gives birth to a baby girl, the baby is considered as something unwanted but celebrations are made when a baby boy is born.

Being regarded as vulnerable, parents give various excuses to keep their daughters at home doing housework instead of going to school.

A school-age girl is not allowed to attend school, with the excuse that she may be raped, abducted or harmed on the way to school.

Boys are considered strong enough to protect themselves from any attack or harm. Girls cannot choose when and whom to marry.

A woman who is a victim of rape will face humiliation starting from the police. Rape is not taken seriously and hence men are seen committing several atrocious violence against women, especially in villages.

As young women get older, numerous things become less available, for example, education and scholastic support. Academic participation turns out to be progressively troublesome as it removes time from fundamental income creating activities.

A few different ways to better help women become compelling pioneers later on is to have a holistic educational program in their beginning phases of their education.

For example, learning their reading skills early on, the association Reading for Ethiopia's Achievement Developed action centers around improving reading abilities in elementary schools.

In the Ethiopian language there are certain feminized slurs and idiomatic expressions that contrast women with animals.

Teferra expresses that this kind of language strengthens negative generalizations and depicts gender based violence on women as though it is admissible and on occasion important.

Biased language use can influence uniformity for women, despite everything it places them on a lower proficient, social, and monetary level to men.

In order to comprehend this issue and step forward, it will expect individuals to know about their language use and how it tends to be destructive and how it might influence a women's prosperity.

Gendered Expectations can negatively affect women's sexual and reproduction wellbeing. According to the Ethiopian Demographic And Health Survey , the women's median for their first marriage is at 17 years of age and 15 years of age in the Amhara district, however it is 23 years of age for men.

Society's desires for how a proper young women should behave and sociocultural standards about women sparing themselves until marriage.

This signifies the many double standard guidelines related with sex and sexually transmitted diseases. Likewise, there are double standard norms related with women with socially sexually transmitted diseases not having the option to look for sexual and contraceptive wellbeing services.

Health Care services are regularly not reasonable or open to ladies, this causes ladies with undesirable pregnancies or who furtively experience hazardous premature births to feel dread of judgment and the consequences of going astray from the standard.

Numerous women in Ethiopia are placed into arranged marriages when they're young. Fetura Mohammed a 14 year old in the Oromo region had an organized marriage set by her dad, yet she just desired to "complete her education and have her own job before getting married.

The weakened Axumite dynasty came to an end in the 9th century when Yodit defeated the last king of the dynasty. Empress Yodit's reign, which lasted for 40 years, aimed to abolish Christianity a religion first accepted by King Ezana of the Axumite dynasty by burning down churches and crucifying people who remained faithful to the orthodox Tewahedo church, which at the time was considered as the religion of the state.

Her reign finally came to an end in following her defeat by the first leader of the Zagwe dynasty. The Zagwe dynasty ruled many parts of present-day Ethiopia and Eritrea between the early 12th and late 13th century.

The name of the dynasty is derived from the Cushitic-speaking Agaw of northern Ethiopia. In the early 15th century, Ethiopia sought to make diplomatic contact with European kingdoms for the first time since the Aksumite era.

They failed to complete the return trip. Afonso would die on this mission. This Abyssinian—Adal War was also one of the first proxy wars in the region, as the Ottoman Empire and Portugal took sides in the conflict.

When Emperor Susenyos I converted to Roman Catholicism in , years of revolt and civil unrest followed, resulting in thousands of deaths. In June , Fasilides , Susenyos' son, declared the state religion again to be the Ethiopian Orthodoxy.

He expelled the Jesuit missionaries and other Europeans. The latter polity had come into existence in when Muhammed Jasa moved his capital from Harar to Aussa Asaita with the split of the Adal Sultanate into the Sultanate of Aussa and the Sultanate of Harar.

At some point after , the Sultanate of Aussa declined and temporarily came to an end in conjunction with Imam Umar Din bin Adam 's recorded ascension to the throne.

The Sultanate was subsequently re-established by Kedafu around the year It was thereafter ruled by his Mudaito Dynasty. Between and , Ethiopia experienced a period of isolation referred to as the Zemene Mesafint or "Age of Princes".

Ethiopian isolationism ended following a British mission that concluded an alliance between the two nations, but it was not until that the Amhara kingdoms of northern Ethiopia Gonder, Gojam, Shoa were briefly united after the power of the Emperor was restored beginning with the reign of Tewodros II.

Tewodros had been born in Begemder from a nobleman of Qwara , where the Qwara dialect of the Agaw language is spoken.

Upon his ascent, he began modernizing Ethiopia and recentralizing power in the Emperor. Ethiopia began to take part in world affairs once again.

But Tewodros suffered several rebellions inside his empire. Northern Oromo militias, Tigrayan rebellion, and the constant incursion of Ottoman Empire and Egyptian forces near the Red Sea brought the weakening and the final downfall of Tewodros II.

He killed himself in during his last fight with the British Expedition to Abyssinia at the Battle of Magdala. Ethiopia in roughly its current form began under the reign of Menelik II , who was Emperor from until his death in From his base in the central province of Shewa , Menelik set out to annex territories to the south, east and west, [95] areas inhabited by the Oromo, Sidama , Gurage, Welayta , and other peoples.

Menelik was born from King Hailemelekot of Shewa and his mother Ejegayehu Lema Adeyamo who was a servant in the royal household.

After he ascended to the throne in , it was renamed Addis Ababa, the new capital of Abyssinia. For his leadership, despite opposition from more traditional elements of society, Menelik II is heralded as a national hero.

Menelik had signed the Treaty of Wichale with Italy in May in which Italy would recognize Ethiopia's sovereignty so long as Italy could control an area north of Ethiopia now part of modern Eritrea.

In return, Italy was to provide Menelik with weapons and support him as emperor. The Italians used the time between the signing of the treaty and its ratification by the Italian government to expand their territorial claims.

About a third of the population died in the Great Ethiopian Famine to Haile Selassie I was born to parents with ethnic links to three of Ethiopia's Afroasiatic-speaking populations: the Oromo and Amhara , the country's two largest ethnic groups, as well as the Gurage.

He came to power after Iyasu V was deposed, and undertook a nationwide modernization campaign from , when he was made a Ras and Regent Inderase for the Empress Regnant , Zewditu , and became the de facto ruler of the Ethiopian Empire.

The independence of Ethiopia was interrupted by the Second Italo-Ethiopian War , beginning when it was invaded by Fascist Italy in early October , and Italian occupation of the country — In , the Italian massacre of Yekatit 12 took place, in which as many as 30, civilians were killed and many others imprisoned.

The Italians made investments in Ethiopian infrastructure development during their occupation. They created the so-called "imperial road" between Addis Ababa and Massaua.

The Italian government abolished slavery , a practice that existed in the country for centuries. Following the entry of Italy into World War II, British Empire forces, together with the Arbegnoch literally, "patriots", referring to armed resistance soldiers restored the sovereignty of Ethiopia in the course of the East African Campaign in An Italian guerrilla warfare campaign continued until This was followed by British recognition of Ethiopia's full sovereignty , without any special British privileges, when the Anglo-Ethiopian Agreement was signed in December On 26 August , Haile Selassie issued a proclamation that removed Ethiopia's legal basis for slavery.

In , Haile Selassie orchestrated a federation with Eritrea. He dissolved this in and annexed Eritrea, resulting in the Eritrean War of Independence.

Opinion within Ethiopia turned against Haile Selassie I owing to the worldwide oil crisis. This oil crisis caused a sharp increase in gasoline prices starting on 13 February ; food shortages; uncertainty regarding the succession; border wars; and discontent in the middle class created through modernization.

Haile Selassie's rule ended on 12 September , when he was deposed by the Derg , a Soviet-backed Marxist—Leninist military dictatorship led by Mengistu Haile Mariam.

The ensuing government suffered several coups, uprisings, wide-scale drought, and a huge refugee problem. This included around 15, Cuban combat troops.

In —78, up to , were killed as a result of the Red Terror , [] from forced deportations or from the use of hunger as a weapon under Mengistu's rule.

The —85 famine in Ethiopia affected around eight million people, resulting in one million dead. Insurrections against Communist rule sprang up, particularly in the northern regions of Eritrea and Tigray.

Concurrently, the Soviet Union began to retreat from building world communism under Mikhail Gorbachev 's glasnost and perestroika policies, marking a dramatic reduction in aid to Ethiopia from Socialist Bloc countries.

This resulted in more economic hardship and the collapse of the military in the face of determined onslaughts by guerrilla forces in the north.

The collapse of Marxism—Leninism in general, and in eastern Europe during the revolutions of , coincided with the Soviet Union stopping aid to Ethiopia altogether in The strategic outlook for Mengistu quickly deteriorated.

Mengistu fled the country and was granted asylum in Zimbabwe , where he still resides. In , after a trial that lasted 12 years, Ethiopia's Federal High Court in Addis Ababa found Mengistu guilty of genocide in absentia.

Mengistu and others who had fled the country were tried and sentenced in absentia. Numerous former officials received the death sentence and tens of others spent the next 20 years in jail, before being pardoned from life sentences.

In July , EPRDF convened a National Conference to establish the Transitional Government of Ethiopia composed of an member Council of Representatives and guided by a national charter that functioned as a transitional constitution.

Ethiopia's 3rd multiparty election on 15 May was highly disputed, with some opposition groups claiming fraud.

Though the Carter Center approved the pre-election conditions, it expressed its dissatisfaction with post-election events.

European Union election observers cited state support for the EPRDF campaign, as well as irregularities in ballot counting and results publishing.

While most of the opposition representatives joined the parliament, some leaders of the CUD party who refused to take up their parliamentary seats were accused of inciting the post-election violence and were imprisoned.

Amnesty International considered them " prisoners of conscience " and they were subsequently released. A coalition of opposition parties and some individuals was established in to oust the government of the EPRDF in legislative elections of Meles' party, which has been in power since , published its page manifesto in Addis Ababa on 10 October After it ensued, it claimed the election, amidst charges of fraud and intimidation.

In mid, two consecutively missed rainy seasons precipitated the worst drought in East Africa seen in 60 years.

Full recovery from the drought's effects did not occur until , with long-term strategies by the national government in conjunction with development agencies believed to offer the most sustainable results.

Meles died on 20 August in Brussels, where he was being treated for an unspecified illness. Protests broke out across the country on 5 August and dozens of protesters were subsequently shot and killed by police.

The protesters demanded an end to human rights abuses, the release of political prisoners, a fairer redistribution of the wealth generated by over a decade of economic growth, and a return of Wolqayt District to the Amhara Region.

On 16 February , the government of Ethiopia declared a six-month nationwide state of emergency following the resignation of Prime Minister Hailemariam Desalegn.

The new Prime Minister was Abiy Ahmed , who made a historic visit to Eritrea in , ending the state of conflict between the countries.

Ethnic violence rose with the political unrest. There were Oromo—Somali clashes between the Oromo, who make up the largest ethnic group in the country, and the ethnic Somalis, leading to up to , have been displaced in If there is need to go to war, we could get millions readied.

The federal government, under the Prosperity Party , requested to the National Election Board of Ethiopia that elections for the year be canceled due to the health and safety concerns of COVID There is no official date set for the next upcoming election.

The government has stated that once a vaccine is found for COVID, they will move forward with elections. The election board and the federal government ruled that having this election would be illegal.

It was estimated that 2. The politics of Ethiopia takes place in a framework of a federal parliamentary republic , wherein the Prime Minister is the head of government.

The President is the head of state but with largely ceremonial powers. Executive power is exercised by the government. Federal legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament.

On the basis of Article 78 of the Ethiopian Constitution, the Judiciary is completely independent of the executive and the legislature.

According to the Democracy Index published by the United Kingdom-based Economist Intelligence Unit in late , Ethiopia was an "authoritarian regime", ranking as the th-most democratic out of countries.

However, since the appointment of Abiy Ahmed as prime minister in , the situation has rapidly evolved. In July , during a trip that then-U.

President Barack Obama took to Ethiopia, he highlighted the role of the country in the fight against Islamic terrorism. The election of Ethiopia's member constituent assembly was held in June This assembly adopted the constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia in December The elections for Ethiopia's first popularly chosen national parliament and regional legislatures were held in May and June Most opposition parties chose to boycott these elections.

International and non-governmental observers concluded that opposition parties would have been able to participate had they chosen to do so. The first President was Negasso Gidada.

The EPRDF-led government of Prime Minister Meles Zenawi promoted a policy of ethnic federalism , devolving significant powers to regional, ethnically based authorities.

Ethiopia today has ten semi-autonomous administrative regions that have the power to raise and spend their own revenues. Under the present government, some fundamental freedoms, including freedom of the press , are circumscribed.

Citizens have little access to media other than the state-owned networks, and most private newspapers struggle to remain open and suffer periodic harassment from the government.

The government uses press laws governing libel to intimidate journalists who are critical of its policies. Meles' government was elected in in Ethiopia's first-ever multiparty elections; however, the results were heavily criticized by international observers and denounced by the opposition as fraudulent.

Although the opposition vote increased in the election, both the opposition and observers from the European Union and elsewhere stated that the vote did not meet international standards for fair and free elections.

The government initiated a crackdown in the provinces as well; in Oromia state the authorities used concerns over insurgency and terrorism to use torture, imprisonment, and other repressive methods to silence critics following the election, particularly people sympathetic to the registered opposition party Oromo National Congress ONC.

A member of the country's Oromo ethnic group, Ms. Birtukan Mideksa is the first woman to lead a political party in Ethiopia. After the elections, Ethiopia lost its single remaining opposition MP; [] there are now no opposition MPs in the Ethiopian parliament.

Recent human rights violations include the killing of peaceful protestors by direct government gunfire in the Oromo and Amhara regions in They're protesting against land grabs, reparations, stolen elections, the rising cost of living, many things.

Among the Omotic Karo-speaking and Hamer peoples in southern Ethiopia, adults and children with physical abnormalities are considered to be mingi , "ritually impure".

The latter are believed to exert an evil influence upon others; disabled infants have traditionally been murdered without a proper burial. In , the Oakland Institute released a report accusing the Ethiopian government of forcing the relocation of "hundreds of thousands of indigenous people from their lands" in the Gambela Region [] The report describes the Ethiopian government's "plans to move over 1.

Despite a wide range of support from all over the world, and even winning Nobel peace prize for , Prim minister Abiy Ahmed has failed to deliver the peace and integrity he promised in the highly divided nation.

A nationwide series of violent protests , concentrated in the Oromia Region, broke out starting on 23 October , sparked by activist and media owner Jawar Mohammed 's allegation that security forces had attempted to detain him.

According to official reports, 86 people were killed, [] mostly by mobs targeting ethnic and religious minorities within the region and surrounding areas, including Addis Ababa, Dire Dawa, and the Harari Region.

He was under detention since July , where his lawyers repeatedly asserted that the arrest was because of Mohammed's political views. Human rights groups also warned that such detentions reflected how the country's political reforms were slipping.

On 29 May , Amnesty International released a report accusing the security forces of Ethiopia of mass detentions and extrajudicial killings.

The report stated that in , at least 25 people, suspected of supporting the Oromo Liberation Army , were killed by the forces in parts the Oromia Region.

Since , landlocked Ethiopia has had no navy and the army is relatively small with about , volunteers on active duty.

Before , Ethiopia was divided into thirteen provinces , many derived from historical regions. The nation now has a tiered governmental system consisting of a federal government overseeing ethnically based regional states, zones, districts woreda , and kebeles "neighbourhoods".

The kililoch are subdivided into sixty-eight zones , and then further into woredas and several special woredas.

The constitution assigns extensive power to regional states, which can establish their own government and democracy as long as it is in line with the federal government's constitution.

Each region has at its apex a regional council where members are directly elected to represent the districts and the council has legislative and executive power to direct internal affairs of the regions.

Article 39 of the Ethiopian Constitution further gives every regional state the right to secede from Ethiopia.

There is debate, however, as to how much of the power guaranteed in the constitution is actually given to the states.

The councils implement their mandate through an executive committee and regional sectoral bureaus. Such elaborate structure of council, executive, and sectoral public institutions is replicated to the next level woreda.

At 1,, square kilometres , It lies between the 3rd parallel north and the 15th parallel north and longitudes 33rd meridian east and 48th meridian east.

The major portion of Ethiopia lies in the Horn of Africa , which is the easternmost part of the African landmass. The territories that have frontiers with Ethiopia are Eritrea to the north and then, moving in a clockwise direction, Djibouti, the de facto state of Somaliland , Somalia, Kenya, South Sudan and Sudan.

Within Ethiopia is a vast highland complex of mountains and dissected plateaus divided by the Great Rift Valley , which runs generally southwest to northeast and is surrounded by lowlands, steppes , or semi-desert.

There is a great diversity of terrain with wide variations in climate, soils, natural vegetation and settlement patterns. Ethiopia is an ecologically diverse country, ranging from the deserts along the eastern border to the tropical forests in the south to extensive Afromontane in the northern and southwestern parts.

Lake Tana in the north is the source of the Blue Nile. It also has many endemic species, notably the gelada , the walia ibex and the Ethiopian wolf "Simien fox".

The wide range of altitude has given the country a variety of ecologically distinct areas, and this has helped to encourage the evolution of endemic species in ecological isolation.

The predominant climate type is tropical monsoon, with wide topographic-induced variation. The Ethiopian Highlands cover most of the country and have a climate which is generally considerably cooler than other regions at similar proximity to the Equator.

It experiences a mild climate year round. With temperatures fairly uniform year round, the seasons in Addis Ababa are largely defined by rainfall: a dry season from October to February, a light rainy season from March to May, and a heavy rainy season from June to September.

There are on average seven hours of sunshine per day. The dry season is the sunniest time of the year, though even at the height of the rainy season in July and August there are still usually several hours per day of bright sunshine.

Most major cities and tourist sites in Ethiopia lie at a similar elevation to Addis Ababa and have a comparable climate.

In less elevated regions, particularly the lower lying Ethiopian xeric grasslands and shrublands in the east of the country, the climate can be significantly hotter and drier.

Ethiopia has 31 endemic species of mammals. However, with last sightings at Finicha'a , this canid is thought to be potentially locally extinct.

The Ethiopian wolf is perhaps the most researched of all the endangered species within Ethiopia. Ethiopia is a global center of avian diversity.

To date more than bird species have been recorded in Ethiopia, twenty of which are endemic to the country. Many of these birds feed on butterflies, like the Bicyclus anynana.

Historically, throughout the African continent, wildlife populations have been rapidly declining due to logging, civil wars, pollution, poaching, and other human factors.

When changes to a habitat occur rapidly, animals do not have time to adjust. Human impact threatens many species, with greater threats expected as a result of climate change induced by greenhouse gases.

Ethiopia has many species listed as critically endangered, endangered, and vulnerable to global extinction. The threatened species in Ethiopia can be broken down into three categories based on IUCN ratings : critically endangered , endangered , and vulnerable.

Ethiopia is one of the eight fundamental and independent centers of origin for cultivated plants in the world.

In rural areas the government also provides non-timber fuel sources and access to non-forested land to promote agriculture without destroying forest habitat.

Organizations such as SOS and Farm Africa are working with the federal government and local governments to create a system of forest management.

This project is assisting more than 80 communities. Since April , Ethiopian prime minister, Abiy Ahmed has promoted Beautifying Sheger , a development project that aims to reduce the negative effects of climate change — among other things — in the capital city of Addis Ababa.

In and , Ethiopia's growth performance and considerable development gains were challenged by high inflation and a difficult balance of payments situation.

In spite of fast growth in recent years, GDP per capita is one of the lowest in the world, and the economy faces a number of serious structural problems.

However, with a focused investment in public infrastructure and industrial parks, Ethiopia's economy is addressing its structural problems to become a hub for light manufacturing in Africa.

The Ethiopian constitution defines the right to own land as belonging only to "the state and the people", but citizens may lease land up to 99 years , and are unable to mortgage or sell.

Renting of land for a maximum of twenty years is allowed and this is expected to ensure that land goes to the most productive user.

Land distribution and administration is considered an area where corruption is institutionalized, and facilitation payments as well as bribes are often demanded when dealing with land-related issues.

A lot of anger and distrust sometimes results in public protests. In addition, agricultural productivity remains low, and frequent droughts still beset the country, also leading to internal displacement.

Ethiopia has 14 major rivers flowing from its highlands, including the Nile. It has the largest water reserves in Africa.

As of [update] , hydroelectric plants represented around The remaining electrical power was generated from fossil fuels 8.

As of [update] , total electricity production was There were 0. In , Egypt and Sudan signed a bilateral treaty, the Nile Waters Agreement , which gave both countries exclusive maritime rights over the Nile waters.

Ever since, Egypt has discouraged almost all projects in Ethiopia that sought to utilize the local Nile tributaries. This had the effect of discouraging external financing of hydropower and irrigation projects in western Ethiopia, thereby impeding water resource-based economic development projects.

However, Ethiopia is in the process of constructing a large 6, MW hydroelectric dam on the Blue Nile river. When completed, this Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam is slated to be the largest hydroelectric power station in Africa.

For the year —18 E. However, the service sector represents the largest portion of the GDP. Production is overwhelmingly by small-scale farmers and enterprises, and a large part of commodity exports are provided by the small agricultural cash-crop sector.

Principal crops include coffee , legumes , oilseeds , cereals , potatoes, sugarcane , and vegetables. Ethiopia is also a Vavilov center of diversity for domesticated crops, including enset , [] coffee and teff.

Exports are almost entirely agricultural commodities with the exception of Gold exports , and coffee is the largest foreign exchange earner.

Ethiopia is Africa's second biggest maize producer. Farmers in the eastern part of the country, where a warming climate is already impacting production, have struggled in recent years, and many are currently reporting largely failed harvests as a result of a prolonged drought".

Ethiopia also has the 5th largest inventory of cattle. Recent development of the floriculture sector means Ethiopia is poised to become one of the top flower and plant exporters in the world.

Cross-border trade by pastoralists is often informal and beyond state control and regulation. This trade helps lower food prices, increase food security, relieve border tensions, and promote regional integration.

Furthermore, the government of Ethiopia is purportedly unhappy with lost tax revenue and foreign exchange revenues.

With the private sector growing slowly, designer leather products like bags are becoming a big export business, with Taytu becoming the first luxury designer label in the country.

With the construction of various new dams and growing hydroelectric power projects around the country, Ethiopia also plans to export electric power to its neighbors.

Most regard Ethiopia's large water resources and potential as its "white oil" and its coffee resources as "black gold".

The country also has large mineral resources and oil potential in some of the less inhabited regions. Political instability in those regions, however, has inhibited development.

Ethiopian geologists were implicated in a major gold swindle in Four chemists and geologists from the Ethiopian Geological Survey were arrested in connection with a fake gold scandal, following complaints from buyers in South Africa.

In , the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam project was commenced. When completed, it will provide surplus energy in Ethiopia which will be available for export to neighboring countries.

It is not clear, when this section will be built and opened. As the first part of a ten-year Road Sector Development Program, between and the Ethiopian government began a sustained effort to improve its infrastructure of roads.

Ethiopia had 58 airports as of [update] , [13] and 61 as of [update]. Ethiopian Airlines is the country's flag carrier , and is wholly owned by the Government of Ethiopia.

Ethiopia's total population has grown from Currently, the population growth rate is among the top ten countries in the world.

The country's population is highly diverse, containing over 80 different ethnic groups. According to the Ethiopian national census of , the Oromo are the largest ethnic group in Ethiopia, at The Amhara represent Other prominent ethnic groups are as follows: Sidama 4.

Afroasiatic-speaking communities make up the majority of the population. Among these, Semitic speakers often collectively refer to themselves as the Habesha people.

The largest ethnic groups among these include the Nuer and Anuak. In addition, Ethiopia had over 75, Italian settlers during the Italian occupation of the country.

In , Ethiopia hosted a population of refugees and asylum seekers numbering approximately , The majority of this population came from Somalia approximately 64, persons , Eritrea 41, and Sudan 25, The Ethiopian government required nearly all refugees to live in refugee camps.

Languages of Ethiopia as of [update] Census [9]. According to Ethnologue , there are 90 individual languages spoken in Ethiopia.

The former includes Oromo language , spoken by the Oromo , and Somali , spoken by the Somalis ; the latter includes Amharic , spoken by the Amhara , and Tigrinya , spoken by the Tigrayans.

Together, these four groups make up about three-quarters of Ethiopia's population. Other Afroasiatic languages with a significant number of speakers include the Cushitic Sidamo , Afar , Hadiyya and Agaw languages , as well as the Semitic Gurage languages , Harari , Silt'e , and Argobba languages.

Additionally, Omotic languages are spoken by Omotic ethnic minority groups inhabiting the southern regions.

Languages from the Nilo-Saharan family are also spoken by ethnic minorities concentrated in the southwestern parts of the country.

English is the most widely spoken foreign language, and is the medium of instruction in secondary schools. Amharic was the language of primary school instruction, but has been replaced in many areas by regional languages such as Oromiffa, Somali or Tigrinya.

The various regions of Ethiopia and chartered cities are free to determine their own working languages. Somali is the official working language of Somali region and Dire Dawa , while Afar, [] Harari, [] and Tigrinya [] are recognized as official working languages in their respective regions.

Italian is still spoken by few parts of the population, mostly among older generations, and is taught in many schools most notably the Istituto Statale Italiano Omnicomprensivo di Addis Abeba.

Also, Amharic and Tigrinya have many words borrowed from the Italian language. Ethiopia's principal orthography is the Ge'ez script. Employed as an abugida for several of the country's languages, it first came into usage in the 6th and 5th centuries BC as an abjad to transcribe the Semitic Ge'ez language.

During the s, the Ethiopic character set was computerized. Other writing systems have also been used over the years by different Ethiopian communities.

The latter include Bakri Sapalo 's script for Oromiffa. Religion in Ethiopia Ethiopia has close historical ties with all three of the world's major Abrahamic religions.

In the 4th century, the Ethiopian empire was one of the first in the world to officially adopt Christianity as the state religion.

As a result of the resolutions of the Council of Chalcedon, in the miaphysites , [] which included the vast majority of Christians in Egypt and Ethiopia, were accused of monophysitism and designated as heretics under the common name of Coptic Christianity see Oriental Orthodoxy.

While no longer distinguished as a state religion, the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church remains the majority Christian denomination.

There is also a substantial Muslims demographic, representing around a third of the population. Additionally, Ethiopia is the site of the First Hegira , a major emigration in Islamic history.

The Falash Mura are Beta Israel who, while identifying as Jews, adopted elements of Christianity due to missionary efforts, and now practice a syncretic form of Ethiopian Judaism mixed with Christianity; they number about , people.

The Beta Abraham are regarded as a medieval offshoot of the Beta Israel, having incorporated elements of traditional African religion , and number about 8, While both still identify as Beta Israel, they exist outside the main community.

The official Beta Israel community leaders tentatively accept the Falash Mura, and have requested they be allowed to emigrate to Israel. The Beta Abraham have historically been shunned by most other communities, having a reputation of being "sorcerers".

According to the National Census, Christians make up Sunnis are largely Shafi'is or Salafis , and there are also many Sufi Muslims there.

It is by far the largest Christian denomination, although a number of P'ent'ay Protestant churches have recently gained ground.

Islam in Ethiopia dates back to the founding of the religion in when a group of Muslims were counseled by Muhammad to escape persecution in Mecca.

The disciples subsequently migrated to Abyssinia via modern-day Eritrea, which was at the time ruled by Ashama ibn-Abjar , a pious Christian emperor.

According to the Population and Housing Census, around 1,, people in Ethiopia are adherents of traditional religions. An additional , residents practice other creeds.

Christians predominantly live in the northern Amhara and Tigray regions, and are largely members of the non-Chalcedonian Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church.

Muslims in Ethiopia predominantly adhere to Sunni Islam and generally inhabit eastern and northeastern areas; particularly the Somali, Afar, Dire Dawa and Harari regions.

Practitioners of traditional religions mainly reside in the nation's far southwestern and western rural borderlands, in the SNNP, Benishangul-Gumuz and Gambela regions.

Human rights groups have regularly accused the government of arresting activists, journalists and bloggers to stamp out dissent among some religious communities.

They were charged with trying to create an Islamic state in the majority Christian country. All the defendants denied the charges and claimed that they were merely protesting in defence of their rights.

There is a small, yet significant number of Jews in Ethiopia, who claim to be one of the lost tribes of Israel. In the s, the number of Ethiopian-Jews decreased, as many started moving to Israel.

The US also has a significant number of Ethiopian-Jews, with a population slightly less than that of Ethiopia. Population growth, migration, and urbanization are all straining both governments' and ecosystems' capacity to provide people with basic services.

First, in — during the Italian occupation under Mussolini's fascist government, and from to when the populations of urban centers tripled.

In , Italy annexed Ethiopia, building infrastructure to connect major cities, and a dam providing power and water. The second period of growth was from to when rural populations migrated to urban centers seeking work and better living conditions.

This pattern slowed due to the Land Reform program instituted by the government, which provided incentives for people to stay in rural areas.

As people moved from rural areas to the cities, there were fewer people to grow food for the population. The Land Reform Act was meant to increase agriculture since food production was not keeping up with population growth over the period of — This program proliferated the formation of peasant associations, large villages based on agriculture.

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An additional , residents practice other creeds. Christians predominantly live in the northern Amhara and Tigray regions, and are largely members of the non-Chalcedonian Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church.

Muslims in Ethiopia predominantly adhere to Sunni Islam and generally inhabit eastern and northeastern areas; particularly the Somali, Afar, Dire Dawa and Harari regions.

Practitioners of traditional religions mainly reside in the nation's far southwestern and western rural borderlands, in the SNNP, Benishangul-Gumuz and Gambela regions.

Human rights groups have regularly accused the government of arresting activists, journalists and bloggers to stamp out dissent among some religious communities.

They were charged with trying to create an Islamic state in the majority Christian country. All the defendants denied the charges and claimed that they were merely protesting in defence of their rights.

There is a small, yet significant number of Jews in Ethiopia, who claim to be one of the lost tribes of Israel.

In the s, the number of Ethiopian-Jews decreased, as many started moving to Israel. The US also has a significant number of Ethiopian-Jews, with a population slightly less than that of Ethiopia.

Population growth, migration, and urbanization are all straining both governments' and ecosystems' capacity to provide people with basic services.

First, in — during the Italian occupation under Mussolini's fascist government, and from to when the populations of urban centers tripled.

In , Italy annexed Ethiopia, building infrastructure to connect major cities, and a dam providing power and water. The second period of growth was from to when rural populations migrated to urban centers seeking work and better living conditions.

This pattern slowed due to the Land Reform program instituted by the government, which provided incentives for people to stay in rural areas.

As people moved from rural areas to the cities, there were fewer people to grow food for the population. The Land Reform Act was meant to increase agriculture since food production was not keeping up with population growth over the period of — This program proliferated the formation of peasant associations, large villages based on agriculture.

The act did lead to an increase in food production, although there is debate over the cause; it may be related to weather conditions more than the reform act.

Migration to urban areas is usually motivated by the hope of better lives. In peasant associations daily life is a struggle to survive.

The peasant associations face a cycle of poverty. Since the landholdings are so small, farmers cannot allow the land to lie fallow, which reduces soil fertility.

These unhealthy farmers have difficulty working the land and the productivity drops further. Although conditions are drastically better in cities, all of Ethiopia suffers from poverty and poor sanitation.

Notably, government-built condominium housing complexes have sprung up throughout the city, benefiting close to , individuals.

This contributes to the spread of illness through unhealthy water. Despite the living conditions in the cities, the people of Addis Ababa are much better off than people living in the peasant associations owing to their educational opportunities.

Many NGOs Non-Governmental Organizations are working to solve this problem; however, most are far apart, uncoordinated, and working in isolation. The World Health Organization 's World Health Report gives a figure of 1, physicians for , [] which comes to about 2.

A brain drain associated with globalization is said to affect the country, with many educated professionals leaving Ethiopia for better economic opportunities in the West.

Ethiopia's main health problems are said to be communicable contagious diseases worsened by poor sanitation and malnutrition.

The state of public health is considerably better in the cities. Birth rates , infant mortality rates , and death rates are lower in cities than in rural areas due to better access to education, medicines, and hospitals.

There are hospitals 12 in Addis Ababa and health centers in Ethiopia. The government of Ethiopia and many international organizations like World Health Organization WHO , and the United Nations, are launching campaigns and are working aggressively to improve Ethiopia's health conditions and promote health awareness on AIDS and other communicable diseases.

Ethiopia has a relatively high infant and maternal mortality rate. Although, Ethiopia did not meet the MDG target of reducing maternal mortality rate by two thirds in , there are improvements nonetheless.

For instance, the contraception prevalence rate increased from 8. Those who are expected to give birth at home have elderly women serve as midwives who assist with the delivery.

The low availability of health-care professionals with modern medical training, together with lack of funds for medical services, leads to the preponderance of less-reliable traditional healers that use home-based therapies to heal common ailments.

One common cultural practice, irrespective of religion or economic status, is female genital mutilation FGM , also known as female genital cutting FGC , a procedure that involves partial or total removal of the external female genitalia, or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons.

The country has a high prevalence of FGM, but prevalence is lower among young girls. The Government of the Federal Republic of Ethiopia is signatory to various international conventions and treaties that protect the rights of women and children.

Its constitution provides for the fundamental rights and freedoms for women. There is an attempt being made to raise the social and economic status of women through eliminating all legal and customary practices, which hinder women's equal participation in society and undermine their social status.

The National Mental Health Strategy, published in , introduced the development of policy designed to improve mental health care in Ethiopia. This strategy mandated that mental health be integrated into the primary health care system.

For example, the burden of depression is estimated to have increased Education in Ethiopia was dominated by the Tewahedo Church for many centuries until secular education was adopted in the early s.

The current system follows school expansion schemes which are very similar to the system in the rural areas during the s, with an addition of deeper regionalization, providing rural education in students' own languages starting at the elementary level, and with more budget finances allocated to the education sector.

The sequence of general education in Ethiopia is six years of primary school, four years of lower secondary school and two years of higher secondary school.

Access to education in Ethiopia has improved significantly. The literacy rate has increased in recent years: according to the census, the literacy rate in Ethiopia was The same report also indicated that the female literacy rate has increased from 27 to 39 percent from to , and the male literacy rate has increased from 49 to 59 percent over the same period for persons 10 years and older.

Ethiopians have a different naming system to the family name -based Western system. Children add the given names of their father and paternal grandfather consecutively to their own given name.

For compatibility purposes, as is done in passports, the grandfather's given name is taken as a family surname , and a person's given name and their father's given name form the first names.

Everyone is addressed by their given name. Ethiopia has several local calendars. The most widely known is the Ethiopian calendar , also known as the Ge'ez calendar.

It is based on the older Alexandrian or Coptic calendar , which in turn derives from the Egyptian calendar. Like the Coptic calendar, the Ethiopian calendar has twelve months of exactly 30 days each plus five or six epagomenal days, which comprise a thirteenth month.

The Ethiopian months begin on the same days as those of the Coptic calendar, but their names are in Ge'ez. Like the Julian calendar , the sixth epagomenal day—which in essence is a leap day —is added every four years without exception on 29 August of the Julian calendar, six months before the Julian leap day.

Also, a seven- to eight-year gap between the Ethiopian and Gregorian calendars results from an alternate calculation in determining the date of the Annunciation of Jesus.

Another calendrical system was developed around BC by the Oromo. A lunar-stellar calendar, this Oromo calendar relies on astronomical observations of the moon in conjunction with seven particular stars or constellations.

Time in Ethiopia is counted differently from most countries. The Ethiopian day is reckoned as beginning at as opposed to , coinciding with sunrise throughout the year.

To convert between the Ethiopian clock and Western clocks, one must add or subtract six hours to the Western time.

For example, local Addis Ababa time is called "8 at night" in Ethiopia, while is called "2 in the evening". The best-known Ethiopian cuisine consists of various types of thick meat stews , known as wat in Ethiopian culture, and vegetable side dishes served atop injera , a large sourdough flatbread made of teff flour.

Almost universally in Ethiopia, it is common to eat from the same dish in the center of the table with a group of people.

It is also a common custom to feed others in your group with your own hands—a tradition referred to as " gursha ".

Chechebsa , marqa , chukko , michirra and dhanga are the most popular dishes from the Oromo. Kitfo , which originated among the Gurage , is one of the country's most popular delicacies.

Tihlo is now very popular in Amhara and spreading further south. Other television stations in the country include Kana TV. The sole internet service provider is the national telecommunications firm Ethio Telecom.

A large portion of users in the country access the internet through mobile devices. In August , following protest and demonstration in the Oromia Region, all access to the internet was shut down for a period of two days.

Although the reason for the restriction was not confirmed by the government, [] the move was similar to a measure taken during the same period in , after a leak of test questions.

The music of Ethiopia is extremely diverse, with each of the country's 80 ethnic groups being associated with unique sounds.

Ethiopian music uses a distinct modal system that is pentatonic , with characteristically long intervals between some notes.

As with many other aspects of Ethiopian culture and tradition, tastes in music and lyrics are strongly linked with those in neighboring Eritrea, Somalia, Djibouti, and Sudan.

Traditionally, lyricism in Ethiopian song writing is strongly associated with views of patriotism or national pride, romance, friendship, and a most unique type of memoire known as 'Tizita'.

The main sports in Ethiopia are track and field particularly long distance running and football. Ethiopian athletes have won many Olympic gold medals in track and field, most of them in long distance running.

Haile Gebrselassie is a world-renowned long distance runner with several world records under his belt. Kenenisa Bekele and Tirunesh Dibaba are also dominant runners, particularly in the 5, and 10, meters in which they hold the world records.

As of [update] and going into , the current national Ethiopian national football team nicknamed the Walayia Antelopes made history by qualifying for the Africa Cup of Nations and reached the last 10 African football teams in the last stage of qualification for the FIFA World Cup.

Noted players include captain Adane Girma and top scorer Saladin Said. Ethiopia has sub-Saharan Africa's longest basketball tradition as it established a national basketball team in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Country in East Africa. This article contains several patronymic names rather than family names. These persons are addressed by their given name , and not by their inherited name.

Name in national languages. Regional languages [1]. English [3]. Main article: History of Ethiopia. Further information: Ethiopian historiography. Main articles: Zagwe dynasty and Ethiopian Empire.

Main articles: Sultanate of Aussa and Mudaito Dynasty. Main article: Zemene Mesafint. See also: Eritrean independence referendum, Main article: Politics of Ethiopia.

Main article: Government of Ethiopia. Main article: Human rights in Ethiopia. Main article: Ethiopian National Defense Force.

Main article: Geography of Ethiopia. See also: Environmental issues in Ethiopia. Main article: Wildlife of Ethiopia.

Main article: Deforestation in Ethiopia. Main article: Beautifying Sheger. Main article: Economy of Ethiopia. See also: Foreign aid to Ethiopia.

See also: Energy in Ethiopia and List of power stations in Ethiopia. Main article: Coffee production in Ethiopia.

Main article: Transport in Ethiopia. Main article: Demographics of Ethiopia. See also: People of Ethiopia and List of ethnic groups in Ethiopia.

Ethnic groups in Ethiopia Ethnic group Population Oromo. Main article: Languages of Ethiopia. Amharic Somali 6.

Tigrinya 5. Sidamo 4. Wolaytta 2. Gurage 2. Afar 1. Hadiyya 1. Gamo-Gofa-Dawro 1. Main article: Religion in Ethiopia. Islam Traditional faiths 2.

Catholicism 0. Judaism 0. Main article: Beta Israel. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. January Learn how and when to remove this template message.

Main article: List of cities and towns in Ethiopia. Main article: Health in Ethiopia. Further information: Child marriage in Ethiopia and Polygamy in Ethiopia.

Main article: Education in Ethiopia. Main article: Culture of Ethiopia. Main article: Naming conventions in Ethiopia and Eritrea.

Main articles: Ethiopian calendar and Oromo calendar. Main article: Ethiopian cuisine. See also: List of Ethiopian dishes and foods.

Main articles: Communications in Ethiopia and Media in Ethiopia. Main article: Music of Ethiopia. Main article: Sport in Ethiopia.

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